Internet of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging topic of technical, social, and economic significance. Consumer products, durable goods, cars and trucks, industrial and utility components, sensors, and other everyday objects are being combined with Internet connectivity and powerful data analytic capabilities that promise to transform the way we work, live, and play. Projections for the impact of IoT on the Internet and economy are impressive, with some anticipating as many as 100 billion connected IoT devices and a global economic impact of more than $11 trillion by 2025. At the same time, however, the Internet of Things raises significant challenges that could stand in the way of realising its potential benefits. Attention-grabbing headlines about the hacking of Internet-connected devices, surveillance concerns, reliability and privacy fears already have captured public attention. Technical challenges remain and new policy, legal and development challenges are emerging. The term Internet of Things generally refers to a system comprising a communicative infrastructure which connects an enormous amount of identified, low-power embedded devices through exploitation of Internet and communication technologies without human intervention. The potential applications of IoT are ample, starting from smart homes to smart cities. In this context, the Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) play an essential role to underpin the deployment infrastructure for IoT. Thus, the different international standardisation bodies such as IETF, IEEE, 3GPP standardised new protocols to meet the requirements and emerging applications of IoT.
Data transmission in harsh environments via dynamic and lossy wireless links is inherently unreliable, leading to excessive retransmissions, large amount of energy consumption and long occupation time of the shared wired and wireless medium. Therefore, reliable and energy-efficient data delivery has to be considered as two important aspects of IoT applications. Hence, routing is of paramount importance for LLNs, as data has to be relayed via tremendous number of resource constraint embedded devices. The pervasiveness of LLNs in IoT applications calls for effective routing solutions to provide ubiquitous connectivity for tremendous number of low-cost and low-power embedded devices. Existing LLNs routing protocols can be categorised into: reactive (on-demand) routing, proactive routing and geographic routing. Our goal is to consider the resource constraints and dynamic attributes of the wireless environment and to research towards finding a more energy-efficient, reliable, stable, and scalable routing in IoTs.
Cyber Physical Systems